Die technischen Seiten classic.

Everything You Always Wanted To Know About Swaps* (*But Were Afraid To Ask)

Hello, dummies
It's your old pal, Fuzzy.
As I'm sure you've all noticed, a lot of the stuff that gets posted here is - to put it delicately - fucking ridiculous. More backwards-ass shit gets posted to wallstreetbets than you'd see on a Westboro Baptist community message board. I mean, I had a look at the daily thread yesterday and..... yeesh. I know, I know. We all make like the divine Laura Dern circa 1992 on the daily and stick our hands deep into this steaming heap of shit to find the nuggets of valuable and/or hilarious information within (thanks for reading, BTW). I agree. I love it just the way it is too. That's what makes WSB great.
What I'm getting at is that a lot of the stuff that gets posted here - notwithstanding it being funny or interesting - is just... wrong. Like, fucking your cousin wrong. And to be clear, I mean the fucking your *first* cousin kinda wrong, before my Southerners in the back get all het up (simmer down, Billy Ray - I know Mabel's twice removed on your grand-sister's side). Truly, I try to let it slide. I do my bit to try and put you on the right path. Most of the time, I sleep easy no matter how badly I've seen someone explain what a bank liquidity crisis is. But out of all of those tens of thousands of misguided, autistic attempts at understanding the world of high finance, one thing gets so consistently - so *emphatically* - fucked up and misunderstood by you retards that last night I felt obligated at the end of a long work day to pull together this edition of Finance with Fuzzy just for you. It's so serious I'm not even going to make a u/pokimane gag. Have you guessed what it is yet? Here's a clue. It's in the title of the post.
That's right, friends. Today in the neighborhood we're going to talk all about hedging in financial markets - spots, swaps, collars, forwards, CDS, synthetic CDOs, all that fun shit. Don't worry; I'm going to explain what all the scary words mean and how they impact your OTM RH positions along the way.
We're going to break it down like this. (1) "What's a hedge, Fuzzy?" (2) Common Hedging Strategies and (3) All About ISDAs and Credit Default Swaps.
Before we begin. For the nerds and JV traders in the back (and anyone else who needs to hear this up front) - I am simplifying these descriptions for the purposes of this post. I am also obviously not going to try and cover every exotic form of hedge under the sun or give a detailed summation of what caused the financial crisis. If you are interested in something specific ask a question, but don't try and impress me with your Investopedia skills or technical points I didn't cover; I will just be forced to flex my years of IRL experience on you in the comments and you'll look like a big dummy.
TL;DR? Fuck you. There is no TL;DR. You've come this far already. What's a few more paragraphs? Put down the Cheetos and try to concentrate for the next 5-7 minutes. You'll learn something, and I promise I'll be gentle.
Ready? Let's get started.
1. The Tao of Risk: Hedging as a Way of Life
The simplest way to characterize what a hedge 'is' is to imagine every action having a binary outcome. One is bad, one is good. Red lines, green lines; uppie, downie. With me so far? Good. A 'hedge' is simply the employment of a strategy to mitigate the effect of your action having the wrong binary outcome. You wanted X, but you got Z! Frowny face. A hedge strategy introduces a third outcome. If you hedged against the possibility of Z happening, then you can wind up with Y instead. Not as good as X, but not as bad as Z. The technical definition I like to give my idiot juniors is as follows:
Utilization of a defensive strategy to mitigate risk, at a fraction of the cost to capital of the risk itself.
Congratulations. You just finished Hedging 101. "But Fuzzy, that's easy! I just sold a naked call against my 95% OTM put! I'm adequately hedged!". Spoiler alert: you're not (although good work on executing a collar, which I describe below). What I'm talking about here is what would be referred to as a 'perfect hedge'; a binary outcome where downside is totally mitigated by a risk management strategy. That's not how it works IRL. Pay attention; this is the tricky part.
You can't take a single position and conclude that you're adequately hedged because risks are fluid, not static. So you need to constantly adjust your position in order to maximize the value of the hedge and insure your position. You also need to consider exposure to more than one category of risk. There are micro (specific exposure) risks, and macro (trend exposure) risks, and both need to factor into the hedge calculus.
That's why, in the real world, the value of hedging depends entirely on the design of the hedging strategy itself. Here, when we say "value" of the hedge, we're not talking about cash money - we're talking about the intrinsic value of the hedge relative to the the risk profile of your underlying exposure. To achieve this, people hedge dynamically. In wallstreetbets terms, this means that as the value of your position changes, you need to change your hedges too. The idea is to efficiently and continuously distribute and rebalance risk across different states and periods, taking value from states in which the marginal cost of the hedge is low and putting it back into states where marginal cost of the hedge is high, until the shadow value of your underlying exposure is equalized across your positions. The punchline, I guess, is that one static position is a hedge in the same way that the finger paintings you make for your wife's boyfriend are art - it's technically correct, but you're only playing yourself by believing it.
Anyway. Obviously doing this as a small potatoes trader is hard but it's worth taking into account. Enough basic shit. So how does this work in markets?
2. A Hedging Taxonomy
The best place to start here is a practical question. What does a business need to hedge against? Think about the specific risk that an individual business faces. These are legion, so I'm just going to list a few of the key ones that apply to most corporates. (1) You have commodity risk for the shit you buy or the shit you use. (2) You have currency risk for the money you borrow. (3) You have rate risk on the debt you carry. (4) You have offtake risk for the shit you sell. Complicated, right? To help address the many and varied ways that shit can go wrong in a sophisticated market, smart operators like yours truly have devised a whole bundle of different instruments which can help you manage the risk. I might write about some of the more complicated ones in a later post if people are interested (CDO/CLOs, strip/stack hedges and bond swaps with option toggles come to mind) but let's stick to the basics for now.
(i) Swaps
A swap is one of the most common forms of hedge instrument, and they're used by pretty much everyone that can afford them. The language is complicated but the concept isn't, so pay attention and you'll be fine. This is the most important part of this section so it'll be the longest one.
Swaps are derivative contracts with two counterparties (before you ask, you can't trade 'em on an exchange - they're OTC instruments only). They're used to exchange one cash flow for another cash flow of equal expected value; doing this allows you to take speculative positions on certain financial prices or to alter the cash flows of existing assets or liabilities within a business. "Wait, Fuzz; slow down! What do you mean sets of cash flows?". Fear not, little autist. Ol' Fuzz has you covered.
The cash flows I'm talking about are referred to in swap-land as 'legs'. One leg is fixed - a set payment that's the same every time it gets paid - and the other is variable - it fluctuates (typically indexed off the price of the underlying risk that you are speculating on / protecting against). You set it up at the start so that they're notionally equal and the two legs net off; so at open, the swap is a zero NPV instrument. Here's where the fun starts. If the price that you based the variable leg of the swap on changes, the value of the swap will shift; the party on the wrong side of the move ponies up via the variable payment. It's a zero sum game.
I'll give you an example using the most vanilla swap around; an interest rate trade. Here's how it works. You borrow money from a bank, and they charge you a rate of interest. You lock the rate up front, because you're smart like that. But then - quelle surprise! - the rate gets better after you borrow. Now you're bagholding to the tune of, I don't know, 5 bps. Doesn't sound like much but on a billion dollar loan that's a lot of money (a classic example of the kind of 'small, deep hole' that's terrible for profits). Now, if you had a swap contract on the rate before you entered the trade, you're set; if the rate goes down, you get a payment under the swap. If it goes up, whatever payment you're making to the bank is netted off by the fact that you're borrowing at a sub-market rate. Win-win! Or, at least, Lose Less / Lose Less. That's the name of the game in hedging.
There are many different kinds of swaps, some of which are pretty exotic; but they're all different variations on the same theme. If your business has exposure to something which fluctuates in price, you trade swaps to hedge against the fluctuation. The valuation of swaps is also super interesting but I guarantee you that 99% of you won't understand it so I'm not going to try and explain it here although I encourage you to google it if you're interested.
Because they're OTC, none of them are filed publicly. Someeeeeetimes you see an ISDA (dsicussed below) but the confirms themselves (the individual swaps) are not filed. You can usually read about the hedging strategy in a 10-K, though. For what it's worth, most modern credit agreements ban speculative hedging. Top tip: This is occasionally something worth checking in credit agreements when you invest in businesses that are debt issuers - being able to do this increases the risk profile significantly and is particularly important in times of economic volatility (ctrl+f "non-speculative" in the credit agreement to be sure).
(ii) Forwards
A forward is a contract made today for the future delivery of an asset at a pre-agreed price. That's it. "But Fuzzy! That sounds just like a futures contract!". I know. Confusing, right? Just like a futures trade, forwards are generally used in commodity or forex land to protect against price fluctuations. The differences between forwards and futures are small but significant. I'm not going to go into super boring detail because I don't think many of you are commodities traders but it is still an important thing to understand even if you're just an RH jockey, so stick with me.
Just like swaps, forwards are OTC contracts - they're not publicly traded. This is distinct from futures, which are traded on exchanges (see The Ballad Of Big Dick Vick for some more color on this). In a forward, no money changes hands until the maturity date of the contract when delivery and receipt are carried out; price and quantity are locked in from day 1. As you now know having read about BDV, futures are marked to market daily, and normally people close them out with synthetic settlement using an inverse position. They're also liquid, and that makes them easier to unwind or close out in case shit goes sideways.
People use forwards when they absolutely have to get rid of the thing they made (or take delivery of the thing they need). If you're a miner, or a farmer, you use this shit to make sure that at the end of the production cycle, you can get rid of the shit you made (and you won't get fucked by someone taking cash settlement over delivery). If you're a buyer, you use them to guarantee that you'll get whatever the shit is that you'll need at a price agreed in advance. Because they're OTC, you can also exactly tailor them to the requirements of your particular circumstances.
These contracts are incredibly byzantine (and there are even crazier synthetic forwards you can see in money markets for the true degenerate fund managers). In my experience, only Texan oilfield magnates, commodities traders, and the weirdo forex crowd fuck with them. I (i) do not own a 10 gallon hat or a novelty size belt buckle (ii) do not wake up in the middle of the night freaking out about the price of pork fat and (iii) love greenbacks too much to care about other countries' monopoly money, so I don't fuck with them.
(iii) Collars
No, not the kind your wife is encouraging you to wear try out to 'spice things up' in the bedroom during quarantine. Collars are actually the hedging strategy most applicable to WSB. Collars deal with options! Hooray!
To execute a basic collar (also called a wrapper by tea-drinking Brits and people from the Antipodes), you buy an out of the money put while simultaneously writing a covered call on the same equity. The put protects your position against price drops and writing the call produces income that offsets the put premium. Doing this limits your tendies (you can only profit up to the strike price of the call) but also writes down your risk. If you screen large volume trades with a VOL/OI of more than 3 or 4x (and they're not bullshit biotech stocks), you can sometimes see these being constructed in real time as hedge funds protect themselves on their shorts.
(3) All About ISDAs, CDS and Synthetic CDOs
You may have heard about the mythical ISDA. Much like an indenture (discussed in my post on $F), it's a magic legal machine that lets you build swaps via trade confirms with a willing counterparty. They are very complicated legal documents and you need to be a true expert to fuck with them. Fortunately, I am, so I do. They're made of two parts; a Master (which is a form agreement that's always the same) and a Schedule (which amends the Master to include your specific terms). They are also the engine behind just about every major credit crunch of the last 10+ years.
First - a brief explainer. An ISDA is a not in and of itself a hedge - it's an umbrella contract that governs the terms of your swaps, which you use to construct your hedge position. You can trade commodities, forex, rates, whatever, all under the same ISDA.
Let me explain. Remember when we talked about swaps? Right. So. You can trade swaps on just about anything. In the late 90s and early 2000s, people had the smart idea of using other people's debt and or credit ratings as the variable leg of swap documentation. These are called credit default swaps. I was actually starting out at a bank during this time and, I gotta tell you, the only thing I can compare people's enthusiasm for this shit to was that moment in your early teens when you discover jerking off. Except, unlike your bathroom bound shame sessions to Mom's Sears catalogue, every single person you know felt that way too; and they're all doing it at once. It was a fiscal circlejerk of epic proportions, and the financial crisis was the inevitable bukkake finish. WSB autism is absolutely no comparison for the enthusiasm people had during this time for lighting each other's money on fire.
Here's how it works. You pick a company. Any company. Maybe even your own! And then you write a swap. In the swap, you define "Credit Event" with respect to that company's debt as the variable leg . And you write in... whatever you want. A ratings downgrade, default under the docs, failure to meet a leverage ratio or FCCR for a certain testing period... whatever. Now, this started out as a hedge position, just like we discussed above. The purest of intentions, of course. But then people realized - if bad shit happens, you make money. And banks... don't like calling in loans or forcing bankruptcies. Can you smell what the moral hazard is cooking?
Enter synthetic CDOs. CDOs are basically pools of asset backed securities that invest in debt (loans or bonds). They've been around for a minute but they got famous in the 2000s because a shitload of them containing subprime mortgage debt went belly up in 2008. This got a lot of publicity because a lot of sad looking rednecks got foreclosed on and were interviewed on CNBC. "OH!", the people cried. "Look at those big bad bankers buying up subprime loans! They caused this!". Wrong answer, America. The debt wasn't the problem. What a lot of people don't realize is that the real meat of the problem was not in regular way CDOs investing in bundles of shit mortgage debts in synthetic CDOs investing in CDS predicated on that debt. They're synthetic because they don't have a stake in the actual underlying debt; just the instruments riding on the coattails. The reason these are so popular (and remain so) is that smart structured attorneys and bankers like your faithful correspondent realized that an even more profitable and efficient way of building high yield products with limited downside was investing in instruments that profit from failure of debt and in instruments that rely on that debt and then hedging that exposure with other CDS instruments in paired trades, and on and on up the chain. The problem with doing this was that everyone wound up exposed to everybody else's books as a result, and when one went tits up, everybody did. Hence, recession, Basel III, etc. Thanks, Obama.
Heavy investment in CDS can also have a warping effect on the price of debt (something else that happened during the pre-financial crisis years and is starting to happen again now). This happens in three different ways. (1) Investors who previously were long on the debt hedge their position by selling CDS protection on the underlying, putting downward pressure on the debt price. (2) Investors who previously shorted the debt switch to buying CDS protection because the relatively illiquid debt (partic. when its a bond) trades at a discount below par compared to the CDS. The resulting reduction in short selling puts upward pressure on the bond price. (3) The delta in price and actual value of the debt tempts some investors to become NBTs (neg basis traders) who long the debt and purchase CDS protection. If traders can't take leverage, nothing happens to the price of the debt. If basis traders can take leverage (which is nearly always the case because they're holding a hedged position), they can push up or depress the debt price, goosing swap premiums etc. Anyway. Enough technical details.
I could keep going. This is a fascinating topic that is very poorly understood and explained, mainly because the people that caused it all still work on the street and use the same tactics today (it's also terribly taught at business schools because none of the teachers were actually around to see how this played out live). But it relates to the topic of today's lesson, so I thought I'd include it here.
Work depending, I'll be back next week with a covenant breakdown. Most upvoted ticker gets the post.
*EDIT 1\* In a total blowout, $PLAY won. So it's D&B time next week. Post will drop Monday at market open.
submitted by fuzzyblankeet to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market

The Next Crypto Wave: The Rise of Stablecoins and its Entry to the U.S. Dollar Market

Author: Christian Hsieh, CEO of Tokenomy
This paper examines some explanations for the continual global market demand for the U.S. dollar, the rise of stablecoins, and the utility and opportunities that crypto dollars can offer to both the cryptocurrency and traditional markets.
The U.S. dollar, dominant in world trade since the establishment of the 1944 Bretton Woods System, is unequivocally the world’s most demanded reserve currency. Today, more than 61% of foreign bank reserves and nearly 40% of the entire world’s debt is denominated in U.S. dollars1.
However, there is a massive supply and demand imbalance in the U.S. dollar market. On the supply side, central banks throughout the world have implemented more than a decade-long accommodative monetary policy since the 2008 global financial crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the need for central banks to provide necessary liquidity and keep staggering economies moving. While the Federal Reserve leads the effort of “money printing” and stimulus programs, the current money supply still cannot meet the constant high demand for the U.S. dollar2. Let us review some of the reasons for this constant dollar demand from a few economic fundamentals.

Demand for U.S. Dollars

Firstly, most of the world’s trade is denominated in U.S. dollars. Chief Economist of the IMF, Gita Gopinath, has compiled data reflecting that the U.S. dollar’s share of invoicing was 4.7 times larger than America’s share of the value of imports, and 3.1 times its share of world exports3. The U.S. dollar is the dominant “invoicing currency” in most developing countries4.

https://preview.redd.it/d4xalwdyz8p51.png?width=535&format=png&auto=webp&s=9f0556c6aa6b29016c9b135f3279e8337dfee2a6

https://preview.redd.it/wucg40kzz8p51.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=71257fec29b43e0fc0df1bf04363717e3b52478f
This U.S. dollar preference also directly impacts the world’s debt. According to the Bank of International Settlements, there is over $67 trillion in U.S. dollar denominated debt globally, and borrowing outside of the U.S. accounted for $12.5 trillion in Q1 20205. There is an immense demand for U.S. dollars every year just to service these dollar debts. The annual U.S. dollar buying demand is easily over $1 trillion assuming the borrowing cost is at 1.5% (1 year LIBOR + 1%) per year, a conservative estimate.

https://preview.redd.it/6956j6f109p51.png?width=487&format=png&auto=webp&s=ccea257a4e9524c11df25737cac961308b542b69
Secondly, since the U.S. has a much stronger economy compared to its global peers, a higher return on investments draws U.S. dollar demand from everywhere in the world, to invest in companies both in the public and private markets. The U.S. hosts the largest stock markets in the world with more than $33 trillion in public market capitalization (combined both NYSE and NASDAQ)6. For the private market, North America’s total share is well over 60% of the $6.5 trillion global assets under management across private equity, real assets, and private debt investments7. The demand for higher quality investments extends to the fixed income market as well. As countries like Japan and Switzerland currently have negative-yielding interest rates8, fixed income investors’ quest for yield in the developed economies leads them back to the U.S. debt market. As of July 2020, there are $15 trillion worth of negative-yielding debt securities globally (see chart). In comparison, the positive, low-yielding U.S. debt remains a sound fixed income strategy for conservative investors in uncertain market conditions.

Source: Bloomberg
Last, but not least, there are many developing economies experiencing failing monetary policies, where hyperinflation has become a real national disaster. A classic example is Venezuela, where the currency Bolivar became practically worthless as the inflation rate skyrocketed to 10,000,000% in 20199. The recent Beirut port explosion in Lebanon caused a sudden economic meltdown and compounded its already troubled financial market, where inflation has soared to over 112% year on year10. For citizens living in unstable regions such as these, the only reliable store of value is the U.S. dollar. According to the Chainalysis 2020 Geography of Cryptocurrency Report, Venezuela has become one of the most active cryptocurrency trading countries11. The demand for cryptocurrency surges as a flight to safety mentality drives Venezuelans to acquire U.S. dollars to preserve savings that they might otherwise lose. The growth for cryptocurrency activities in those regions is fueled by these desperate citizens using cryptocurrencies as rails to access the U.S. dollar, on top of acquiring actual Bitcoin or other underlying crypto assets.

The Rise of Crypto Dollars

Due to the highly volatile nature of cryptocurrencies, USD stablecoin, a crypto-powered blockchain token that pegs its value to the U.S. dollar, was introduced to provide stable dollar exposure in the crypto trading sphere. Tether is the first of its kind. Issued in 2014 on the bitcoin blockchain (Omni layer protocol), under the token symbol USDT, it attempts to provide crypto traders with a stable settlement currency while they trade in and out of various crypto assets. The reason behind the stablecoin creation was to address the inefficient and burdensome aspects of having to move fiat U.S. dollars between the legacy banking system and crypto exchanges. Because one USDT is theoretically backed by one U.S. dollar, traders can use USDT to trade and settle to fiat dollars. It was not until 2017 that the majority of traders seemed to realize Tether’s intended utility and started using it widely. As of April 2019, USDT trading volume started exceeding the trading volume of bitcoina12, and it now dominates the crypto trading sphere with over $50 billion average daily trading volume13.

https://preview.redd.it/3vq7v1jg09p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f11b5f5245a8c335ccc60432873e9bad2eb1e1
An interesting aspect of USDT is that although the claimed 1:1 backing with U.S. dollar collateral is in question, and the Tether company is in reality running fractional reserves through a loose offshore corporate structure, Tether’s trading volume and adoption continues to grow rapidly14. Perhaps in comparison to fiat U.S. dollars, which is not really backed by anything, Tether still has cash equivalents in reserves and crypto traders favor its liquidity and convenience over its lack of legitimacy. For those who are concerned about Tether’s solvency, they can now purchase credit default swaps for downside protection15. On the other hand, USDC, the more compliant contender, takes a distant second spot with total coin circulation of $1.8 billion, versus USDT at $14.5 billion (at the time of publication). It is still too early to tell who is the ultimate leader in the stablecoin arena, as more and more stablecoins are launching to offer various functions and supporting mechanisms. There are three main categories of stablecoin: fiat-backed, crypto-collateralized, and non-collateralized algorithm based stablecoins. Most of these are still at an experimental phase, and readers can learn more about them here. With the continuous innovation of stablecoin development, the utility stablecoins provide in the overall crypto market will become more apparent.

Institutional Developments

In addition to trade settlement, stablecoins can be applied in many other areas. Cross-border payments and remittances is an inefficient market that desperately needs innovation. In 2020, the average cost of sending money across the world is around 7%16, and it takes days to settle. The World Bank aims to reduce remittance fees to 3% by 2030. With the implementation of blockchain technology, this cost could be further reduced close to zero.
J.P. Morgan, the largest bank in the U.S., has created an Interbank Information Network (IIN) with 416 global Institutions to transform the speed of payment flows through its own JPM Coin, another type of crypto dollar17. Although people argue that JPM Coin is not considered a cryptocurrency as it cannot trade openly on a public blockchain, it is by far the largest scale experiment with all the institutional participants trading within the “permissioned” blockchain. It might be more accurate to refer to it as the use of distributed ledger technology (DLT) instead of “blockchain” in this context. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that as J.P. Morgan currently moves $6 trillion U.S. dollars per day18, the scale of this experiment would create a considerable impact in the international payment and remittance market if it were successful. Potentially the day will come when regulated crypto exchanges become participants of IIN, and the link between public and private crypto assets can be instantly connected, unlocking greater possibilities in blockchain applications.
Many central banks are also in talks about developing their own central bank digital currency (CBDC). Although this idea was not new, the discussion was brought to the forefront due to Facebook’s aggressive Libra project announcement in June 2019 and the public attention that followed. As of July 2020, at least 36 central banks have published some sort of CBDC framework. While each nation has a slightly different motivation behind its currency digitization initiative, ranging from payment safety, transaction efficiency, easy monetary implementation, or financial inclusion, these central banks are committed to deploying a new digital payment infrastructure. When it comes to the technical architectures, research from BIS indicates that most of the current proofs-of-concept tend to be based upon distributed ledger technology (permissioned blockchain)19.

https://preview.redd.it/lgb1f2rw19p51.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=040bb0deed0499df6bf08a072fd7c4a442a826a0
These institutional experiments are laying an essential foundation for an improved global payment infrastructure, where instant and frictionless cross-border settlements can take place with minimal costs. Of course, the interoperability of private DLT tokens and public blockchain stablecoins has yet to be explored, but the innovation with both public and private blockchain efforts could eventually merge. This was highlighted recently by the Governor of the Bank of England who stated that “stablecoins and CBDC could sit alongside each other20”. One thing for certain is that crypto dollars (or other fiat-linked digital currencies) are going to play a significant role in our future economy.

Future Opportunities

There is never a dull moment in the crypto sector. The industry narratives constantly shift as innovation continues to evolve. Twelve years since its inception, Bitcoin has evolved from an abstract subject to a familiar concept. Its role as a secured, scarce, decentralized digital store of value has continued to gain acceptance, and it is well on its way to becoming an investable asset class as a portfolio hedge against asset price inflation and fiat currency depreciation. Stablecoins have proven to be useful as proxy dollars in the crypto world, similar to how dollars are essential in the traditional world. It is only a matter of time before stablecoins or private digital tokens dominate the cross-border payments and global remittances industry.
There are no shortages of hypes and experiments that draw new participants into the crypto space, such as smart contracts, new blockchains, ICOs, tokenization of things, or the most recent trends on DeFi tokens. These projects highlight the possibilities for a much more robust digital future, but the market also needs time to test and adopt. A reliable digital payment infrastructure must be built first in order to allow these experiments to flourish.
In this paper we examined the historical background and economic reasons for the U.S. dollar’s dominance in the world, and the probable conclusion is that the demand for U.S. dollars will likely continue, especially in the middle of a global pandemic, accompanied by a worldwide economic slowdown. The current monetary system is far from perfect, but there are no better alternatives for replacement at least in the near term. Incremental improvements are being made in both the public and private sectors, and stablecoins have a definite role to play in both the traditional and the new crypto world.
Thank you.

Reference:
[1] How the US dollar became the world’s reserve currency, Investopedia
[2] The dollar is in high demand, prone to dangerous appreciation, The Economist
[3] Dollar dominance in trade and finance, Gita Gopinath
[4] Global trades dependence on dollars, The Economist & IMF working papers
[5] Total credit to non-bank borrowers by currency of denomination, BIS
[6] Biggest stock exchanges in the world, Business Insider
[7] McKinsey Global Private Market Review 2020, McKinsey & Company
[8] Central banks current interest rates, Global Rates
[9] Venezuela hyperinflation hits 10 million percent, CNBC
[10] Lebanon inflation crisis, Reuters
[11] Venezuela cryptocurrency market, Chainalysis
[12] The most used cryptocurrency isn’t Bitcoin, Bloomberg
[13] Trading volume of all crypto assets, coinmarketcap.com
[14] Tether US dollar peg is no longer credible, Forbes
[15] New crypto derivatives let you bet on (or against) Tether’s solvency, Coindesk
[16] Remittance Price Worldwide, The World Bank
[17] Interbank Information Network, J.P. Morgan
[18] Jamie Dimon interview, CBS News
[19] Rise of the central bank digital currency, BIS
[20] Speech by Andrew Bailey, 3 September 2020, Bank of England
submitted by Tokenomy to tokenomyofficial [link] [comments]

WolfpackBOT - The world's fastest and most secure trading bot

WolfpackBOT - The world's fastest and most secure trading bot

https://preview.redd.it/b2ffej55zfd21.png?width=768&format=png&auto=webp&s=196c912c5d4250be54d647648613545f74faec7d

INTRODUCTION

According to wikipedia, Blockchain is originally known as bloc chain, It is a growing list of records known as blocks which is linked using cryptography, each of these blocks contain a cryptographic hash of the initial block, a transaction data and a time stamp.
Since its emergence in the year 2008, when Nakamoto satoshi discovered and introduced bitcoin, there has been serious efforts to integrate the blockchain technology into several aspects of various process of global business , The blockchain technology has been described as having the potential to disrupt many industries with immutability, low-cost transaction, and enhanced maximum security. So many other blockchain implementations have been deployed and developed with unique features designed to specific use-cases.
The blockchain technology has made possible to issue assets through a distributed ledger framework. With cryptocurrency tokens, Assets can be given economic value in order to validate and initiate transactional processes.

ADVANTAGES OF BLOCKCHAIN:

  1. Decentralised payment processing,
  2. Creating an immutable system of recording,
  3. Reducing Cost of Transaction and
  4. Enhanced Security.
  5. Now that we have reminded ourselves of what blockchain technology is, let’s look into the subject matter.

ABOUT WolfpackBOT

WolfpackBOT is a highly advanced cryptocurrency trading software that allows for the execution of trades at lightning speed using proprietary trading algorithms, proprietary “Werewolf” Trading Analysis configurations, or user customized settings based on personal trading style. WolfpackBOT also allows for simultaneous trading access to all compatible cryptocurrency exchanges that are available to the bot, and all trading pairs with the WerewolfBOT subscription package.
WolfpackBOT is introducing an industry first, a beautiful automated cryptocurrency trading console: The WolfBOX. This efficient and sleek piece of hardware will conveniently allow for the full utilization of a bot subscription without the need for a VPS or dedicated computer. The WolfBOX will also include a built-in secure Hardware Wallet and RFID card reader to optimize ease-of-use and functionality.
WolfpackBOT trading software is enabled with limit, market, and “Wolf Trade” orders on all trading candles, including one-minute candles, with the widest array of technical trading indicators available on the market. WolfpackBOT's proprietary “Wolf Trade” orders provide superior market sell orders with a bite! WolfpackBOT is the only trading bot to feature live price scanning on your positions and also handles partial fills with ease, meaning you don’t miss out on orders. WolfpackBOT is incredibly fast and can fulfill up to 10,000 trades per day depending on market conditions and subscription package.
WolfpackBOT allows simultaneous trading access to all cryptocurrency exchanges that are available to the bot, and all trading pairs through the WerewolfBOT subscription plan. Not only do inferior bots allow limited access to one exchange and one trading pair per bot, they also store your API keys remotely on servers which are potentially susceptible to hacks and pump and dump attacks. User security and API key protection holds a high priority within the WolfpackBOT framework which is why it is the only trading bot that gives users full control with local management of their API keys.
Masternode and Proof of Work X11 Blockchain
Wolfcoin Blockchain with X11 Proof of Work Mining and Masternode Reward Systems The Wolfcoin blockchain and network are both designed and engineered to ensure store of value, transactional speed and security, and fungibility. The main goal of the Wolfcoin blockchain is to facilitate fast and secure transactions with a governance that helps sustain the network for the benefit of all users. The Wolfcoin blockchain is a two-tier network comprised of a Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism powered by miners and a Proof of Service (PoSe) system powered by masternodes.
The Wolfcoin blockchain is secured through Proof of Work (PoW) in which miners attempt to solve difficult problems with specialized computers. When a problem is solved, the miner receives the right to add a new block to the blockchain. If the problem was solved correctly, the miner is rewarded once the block is added.
The second tier, which is powered by masternodes, enables Wolfcoin to facilitate private and instant transactions with Private Send and Instant Send. Masternodes are also rewarded when miners discover new blocks.
The block reward is distributed with 80% going to the masternodes and 20% going to miners. The masternode system is referred to as Proof of Service (PoSe), since the masternodes provide crucial services that support the features of the network.
Masternodes also oversee the network and have the power to reject improperly formed blocks from miners. If a miner tried to take the entire block reward for themselves, the masternode network would orphan the block ensuring that it would not be added to the blockchain.
In short, miners power the first tier, which is the basic sending and receiving of funds and prevention of double spending. Masternodes power the second tier, which provide the added features that make Wolfcoin different from other cryptocurrencies. Masternodes do not mine, and mining computers cannot serve as masternodes.
Additionally, each masternode is “secured” by 10,000 WOLF. Those WOLF remain under the sole control of their owner at all times. The funds are not locked in any way; however, if enough of the funds are moved or spent to cause the user’s holdings to drop below 10,000 Wolfcoin, the associated masternode will go offline and stop receiving rewards.
By pre-ordering your WolfpackBOT subscription, you will also receive Wolfcoin as a reward that can be utilized in the following ways:
  • Redeemable for WolfpackBOT subscriptions
  • Redeemable for the WolfBOX Console
  • Redeemable for WolfpackBOT and Wolfcoin apparel and merchandise
  • Fungible utility that can be exchanged for like value on exchanges
When you hold at least 10,000 Wolfcoin in your Wolfcoin wallet connected to a static IP address, you will become a masternode, meaning you will have a chance to receive 80 percent of the block reward every sixty seconds.

THE FEATURES

WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software:

After the crowdsale, Wolfcoin will be the exclusive method of payment for WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software subscriptions.

Multiple Technical Analysis Indicators:

WolfpackBOT offers the widest array of multiple Technical Analysis indicators, oscillators, configurations and settings available in the world of Automated Cryptocurrency Trading Bots. WolfpackBOT provides Bollinger Bands, Double EMA, Elliot Wave, EMA, EMA Cross, Fibonacci Sequence, KAMA, MA Cross, MACD, RSI, SMA, Stochastic, Stochastic RSI, Triple EMA, and many more!

Shorting Features:

WolfpackBOT includes Cryptocurrency Shorting Features that allow users to short their positions and buy them back at the lower price to maximize their returns.

Copyrighted Crash Protection:

Crash Protection, one of WolfpackBOT's most advanced features, enables users the option to automatically scan and convert all positions to a stable coin at the sign of our proprietary Hidden Bear Divergence Indicator, and then buy back into base currency to resume trading at the sign of our proprietary Hidden Bull Divergence Indicator.

Language Translator:

WolfpackBOT has a built in Language Translator that instantly translates the entire BOT into Dutch, English, French, German, or Spanish.

All Trading Pairs on all available Exchanges:

WolfpackBOT allows our customers to simultaneously trade on multiple cryptocurrency exchanges, and with all the exchange’s trading pairs available for trading. The best part is that it’s all possible on one bot with one subscription to the WerewolfBOT package!

Coin Selector:

While other automated trading platforms only allow for a limited amount of coins per subscription, WolfpackBOT allows all trading pairs and all coins to be traded on all the available major exchanges with the WerewolfBOT subscription. WolfpackBOT's proprietary Coin Selector allows for users to choose whether to trade all cryptocurrencies or blacklist some, thus not trading them at all, as well as search for the highest volume, greatest performing, or a specific volatility range of coins for a given timeframe.

Werewolf Configurations and Settings:

Werewolf Configurations and Settings are copyrighted trading algorithms that use proprietary optimum settings for trading: the perfect configuration for experienced and inexperienced traders alike. These settings can be adjusted to the current market trend, with preset configurations for bear, sideways, and bull markets.

Werewolf Ultimate:

Werewolf Ultimate is the ultimate choice when trading. It doesn't trade a particular trading pair or particular coins, it trades them all. It goes in for the kill to increase the potential returns. Crash Protection is a built-in feature in Werewolf Ultimate.

Werewolf Bull Market:

Werewolf Bull Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is in a Bull Run. Werewolf Bull Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Bull Run Market.

Werewolf Sideways Market:

Werewolf Sideways Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is trading sideways. Werewolf Sideways Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Sideways Trading Market.

Werewolf Bear Market:

Werewolf Bear Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is in a Bear Run. Werewolf Bear Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Bear Run Market.

The WolfBOX Hardware Console:

WolfpackBOT also offers an industry first: a beautiful hardware console, The WolfBOX. Our console comes preloaded with WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software and also includes a built-in secure hardware wallet. Some of the key features of the WolfBOX include our high-speed CPU, solid-state hard drive, built-in RFID card reader, and integrated Bitpay and Coinbase wallets.

Wolfpack Consulting

Our company offers its services and expertise as Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Specialists to individuals and companies. We offer consulting services in the fields of blockchain and cryptocurrency development and management.

Wolfpack Philanthropy

We are dedicated to the proposition that we have a responsibility to use a portion of our company’s revenue to help create a better world and a brighter future. As we move forward, our philanthropic efforts include environmental stewardship, renewable energy, human rights, economic development, as well as animal and wildlife rescue and conservation with an emphasis on dogs and wolves.

Wolfcoin Information

THE WOLFCOIN Wolfcoin is the coin that fuels all WolfpackBOT's projects.
This utility, coupled with the reward systems with mining and Masternoding capabilities, makes the use of Wolfcoin potentially appealing to all WolfpackBOT users whom are interested in receiving additional Wolfcoin for subscriptions, merchandise and other rewards such as passive cryptocurrency portfolio growth.
THE WOLFCOIN WALLET WolfpackBOT uses our proprietary Wolfcoin Core QT wallet.
February 2018 Conceptual development of WolfpackBOT Software
May 2018 Company Roadmap development Alpha models of WolfpackBOT Software
June 2018 Ongoing research, development, and testing
October 2018 Advertising and Marketing Campaign Starts Wallets available for payment; BTC, BTG, DASH, DOGE, ETC, ETH, LTC October 15 - Pre-registration begins
November 2018 November 1 - Crowdsale Stage I begins
December 2018 Official presentation of WolfpackBOT beta Software Preview Creation of Wolfcoin (WOLF: 300,000,000 coins pre-mined on Genesis Block) WolfpackBOT beta Software release to selected customers
December 21 - Launch network and mine Genesis block
December 22 - PoW / Mainnet
December 23 - Blockchain and network testing
December 28 - Iquidis Wolfcoin Block Explorer released on our website
January 2019 January 1 - Wolfcoin Core wallets available for download on the website January 1 - Wallet and Masternode Tutorial available January 1 - Masternode and PoW instructional videos available January 1 - Subscription Pre-order Coin Rewards disbursed Announcement listing WOLF on top-10 Exchange
February 2019 February 1 - Crowdsale Stage I Ends February 1 - Crowdsale Stage II Begins
March 2019 March 15 - Crowdsale Stage II Ends March 15 - Crowdsale Stage III Begins WolfpackBOT Software roll-out to contributors WolfBOX Console available for Pre-order
April 2019 WolfpackBOT Subscriptions available for customers First Major version released: automated, manual, and paper trading WolfpackBOT Live support center April 30 - Crowdsale Stage III Ends
May 2019 WolfBOX Consoles Pre-orders first shipment
June 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options and indicators
July 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicators
August 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V2.0 Second major release: Strategy Marketplace and Back-testing
September 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicators
October 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V3.0 Third major release: Signals Marketplace (Supporting 3rd Party App Signals) Mobile Application for WolfpackBOT Software and Trading Platform
November 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicator
December 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V4.0
January 2020 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V5.0 Fourth major release: Machine Learning Strategy Optimization

THE AMAZING TEAM

Philip Longhurst Chief Executive Officer The leader of our pack and the man behind the WolfpackBOT trading bot, Philip Longhurst is a mathematical genius, engineer, day trader, and animal rescuer. As an account manager for J.P. Morgan and MBNA Bank, Phil managed the accounts of several high-profile clients and businesses. He has been successfully trading stocks for over twenty-five years and has successfully applied his trading expertise and mathematical acumen to the cryptocurrency market since 2013.
Philip holds bachelor's degrees in mechanical engineering and business administration and is a loving husband, father, and family man who has been rescuing dogs since 1995. His driving desire is to use the success of Wolfpack Group to create a brighter future for humanity. He currently resides in the United States of America with his wife, daughter, and dogs.
Rogier Pointl Chief Financial Officer Rogier Pointl is a successful entrepreneur with nearly twenty-five years of experience in business management, marketing, financial administration, economics, and fintech. Rogier holds bachelor's degrees in Business Communications and Financial Administration. He is a pioneer in the field of virtual reality, having served as CEO and owner of Simworld, the first virtual reality racing center in Europe, where he oversaw the development of advanced simulator and virtual reality hardware and software.
Rogier is an experienced trader and has been trading stocks since 2007. He began applying his expertise to the cryptocurrency market in 2010, gaining experience as a Bitcoin miner along the way. Rogier is a loving husband and father and currently resides in the Netherlands with his wife and two daughters.
Jason Cormier Chief Technical Officer Jason Cormier is a humble -but extraordinary- individual who is blessed with a Mensa IQ of 151, he is continually driven by a desire for knowledge and self-growth. He is self-taught in Visual Basics, C#, C++, HTML, and CSS and began developing programs and applications at the age of 14, including the TCB Wallet, which was the first ever wallet program that held its users' log in names and passwords. Jason is a cryptocurrency guru whose expertise includes cryptocurrency mining farms, proof-of-stake, masternodes, and cryptocurrency trading.
Jason holds Associate degrees in Computer Science and Psychology, and currently resides in the United States of America with his wife and son.
Jay McKinney Chief Web Development and Design Officer Jay is a veteran of the Iraq War who put his life on the line in combat to protect our freedoms. To center himself while stationed in the Iraqi warzone, he taught himself C# as he knew honing his Web Development skills would help him provide a better future for himself and his family. Upon returning home safely, he worked his way through college and holds bachelor's degrees in Computer Programming and Web Development & Design.
Jay has worked for the Kentucky Housing Corporation, serving as a software engineer and web developer. He is a loving family man who currently resides in the United States of America with his wife and two children.
David Johnson Chief Software Development Officer David holds a Master of Science degree in Information Systems and a Bachelor's degree in Business Administration with a specialization in Information Systems, graduating with Magna Cum Laude status. He has worked for the Kentucky Housing Corporation, serving as a network analyst and software engineer. As an entrepreneur, he has owned his own web and software development company since 2009, creating and maintaining several websites in C# and PHP, and has been operating the crypto-oriented YouTube channel BigBits since 2017, where he discusses automated Cryptocurrency trading strategies.
David is a proud father of two and resides in the United States of America with his wife and children. Like any good Kentuckian, he is a huge fan of the University of Kentucky's college sports teams.
Gabriel Condrea Software and Web Development Officer Gabriel Condrea holds a bachelor's degree in electrical and computer engineering and has worked as a software developer and senior systems engineer in both the United States and the United Kingdom, working with a variety of programming languages and IDEs. He has used his expertise to create Manufacturing and SCADA systems in industrial applications.
Gabriel also applies his engineering skills to cryptocurrency day trading, seeking to automate the process. He loves to travel and currently resides in the United States with his girlfriend.
Igor Otorepec Chief Hardware Development Officer Igor is an engineer with twenty years of experience specializing in advanced PLC programming and industrial robotics. He is also an IT security expert and a CEC Certified Ethical Cracker who uses his skills to expose and patch security vulnerabilities in blockchain codes.
Igor is an advanced cryptocurrency trader and Kung Fu master who uses bio-hacking as a way of life to keep his 'chi' constantly centered. He currently resides in Austria with his loving wife.
Manik Ehhsan Director of Marketing and Public Relations Manik holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science and has over five years of experience in Web Development, Digital Marketing and Graphics Design. He has also managed the marketing for more than 30 successful Cryptocurrency start-ups and projects, and specializes in SEO and ASO. Manik is also a Cryptocurrency project promotion expert with an emphasis on Masternodes and building Social Media Communities.
Manik has focused his life on Cryptocurrency and currently resides in Bangladesh with his loving family.
Rance Garrison Chief Marketing Officer Rance Garrison holds a bachelor's degree in Business Administration and specialized in Seminary Studies for his Master's degree. He served as an AmeriCorps VISTA at WMMT-FM, the radio station owned by Appalshop, an arts and education center in Kentucky, and has also specialized in local cable television advertising. Rance is also a musician who has released several albums independently over the last decade.
Rance is very dedicated to his local community and is most excited by the potential implications of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology for rural and remote economies. He currently resides in the United States of America with his wife, dog, and cats.
Paul Gabens Chief Public Relations Officer A master negotiator with a penchant for strategy, Paul Gabens brings more than twenty years of marketing and promotional experience in the automotive, hospitality, and entertainment industries to the Wolfpack. He is also an avid stock and cryptocurrency trader, having first entered into the cryptocurrency market two years ago, embracing his passion for crypto with the same vigor as his love for travel, classic cars, extreme roller coasters, and surfing.
Paul holds degrees in business management, marketing, and automotive aftermarket. He currently resides in the United States with his fiancé and two cats.
Blake Stanley Marketing and Social Media Officer Blake Stanley is a cryptocurrency enthusiast who also has over six years of experience managing both government and private sector client and customer relations. A strategic thinker and expert in the field of social media-based advertising, Blake also owns and manages his own online marketing company where he has been successfully curating and implementing online marketing and advertising strategies for his clients for the past three years.
Blake is a proud father and family man and currently lives in the United States with his daughter and fiancé.
Martin Kilgore Market and Trading Analyst Martin Kilgore holds bachelor’s degrees in both accounting and mathematics, having researched Knot Theory and the Jones Polynomial during his undergraduate studies, giving him a firm edge when analyzing market conditions. He has worked as a staff accountant for several governmental organizations.
Martin lives in the United States with his fiancé.
Jonathan McDonald Chief Trading Strategy Officer Jonathan has honed his trading skills over the past five years by studying and implementing economics, financial strategy, Forex trading analysis and trading bots. Through his constant learning, he discovered Cryptocurrency after seeing the difference in market volatility and high yield trading. His fine-tuned trading strategies complement Crypto markets perfectly, and he has been implementing trading strategies to the Cryptocurrency market for over a year with phenomenal results. Jonathan is constantly improving his trading skills with an emphasis on scalping techniques. He has applied his trading skillset to the WolfpackBOT and enjoys working alongside the Wolfpack in creating the fastest trading bot on the market.
Jonathan currently resides in Canada with his supportive girlfriend and family.
Web site: https://www.wolfpackbot.com/
Technical document: https://www.wolfpackbot.com/Pdf/whitepaper_en.pdf
Bounty0x username: idrixoxo
submitted by idrixoxo2015 to u/idrixoxo2015 [link] [comments]

WolfpackBOT - The world's fastest and most secure trading bot

WolfpackBOT - The world's fastest and most secure trading bot

https://preview.redd.it/n7wutgsuzfd21.png?width=800&format=png&auto=webp&s=d0dac7147b8e70584305f997732a248d6b088ff9

INTRODUCTION

Cryptocurrency is essentially digital money traded from one person to another through the use of pseudonyms. There are no intermediaries like banks, no governmental oversight or authority, and no fees. The “crypto” in cryptocurrency refers to the use of cryptography to ensure the security and privacy of every transaction.
New coins are created through a technique called mining. The process requires powerful computers that solve complex math problems. Each problem should take about 10 minutes to solve, and results in the creation of a predetermined number of coins. The total number of coins that can be created is fixed — there’s a limit of 21 million bitcoins that can be created. The number of coins rewarded for solving each problem dwindles as time goes on.
Bitcoin is believed to have been created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakamoto, an enigmatic figure who has so far proven all but impossible to definitively identify. By using cryptography to control the creation and tracking of a digital currency, Nakamoto took that power away from central authorities like governments.
Bitcoin was the first and most famous digital currency, but you can choose from more than 1,500, including ether, litecoin and even cryptokitties. For awhile, you saw these currencies only in the darkest corners of the internet, where people used them for all sorts of questionable, even illegal, activities. Drug dealers liked them because they made transactions all but invisible, and trolls at the Kremlin-backed Internet Research Agency used bitcoin to finance their campaign to influence the 2016 election.
That started to change in 2014, when Overstock became the first major US retailer to accept bitcoin. Companies like Expedia and Microsoft followed suit.
One of the biggest misconceptions about cryptocurrencies is that you need thousands of dollars to invest. It’s an easy assumption to make, especially in the case of bitcoin, which stayed under $1,000 from about 2010 to 2017. But then it took off, surpassing thousand-dollar milestones at a pace that seemed quicker than you could refresh your phone.
The staggering value is off-putting to many. But unlike most stocks, you can buy a fraction of a bitcoin so you don’t need thousands to get into the crypto game.

OVERVIEW OF WolfpackBOT

WolfpackBOT is a highly advanced cryptocurrency trading software that allows for the execution of trades at lightning speed using proprietary trading algorithms, proprietary “Werewolf” Trading Analysis configurations, or user customized settings based on personal trading style. WolfpackBOT also allows for simultaneous trading access to all compatible cryptocurrency exchanges that are available to the bot, and all trading pairs with the WerewolfBOT subscription package.
WolfpackBOT is introducing an industry first, a beautiful automated cryptocurrency trading console: The WolfBOX. This efficient and sleek piece of hardware will conveniently allow for the full utilization of a bot subscription without the need for a VPS or dedicated computer. The WolfBOX will also include a built-in secure Hardware Wallet and RFID card reader to optimize ease-of-use and functionality.
WolfpackBOT trading software is enabled with limit, market, and “Wolf Trade” orders on all trading candles, including one-minute candles, with the widest array of technical trading indicators available on the market. WolfpackBOT's proprietary “Wolf Trade” orders provide superior market sell orders with a bite! WolfpackBOT is the only trading bot to feature live price scanning on your positions and also handles partial fills with ease, meaning you don’t miss out on orders. WolfpackBOT is incredibly fast and can fulfill up to 10,000 trades per day depending on market conditions and subscription package.
WolfpackBOT allows simultaneous trading access to all cryptocurrency exchanges that are available to the bot, and all trading pairs through the WerewolfBOT subscription plan. Not only do inferior bots allow limited access to one exchange and one trading pair per bot, they also store your API keys remotely on servers which are potentially susceptible to hacks and pump and dump attacks. User security and API key protection holds a high priority within the WolfpackBOT framework which is why it is the only trading bot that gives users full control with local management of their API keys.
Masternode and Proof of Work X11 Blockchain
Wolfcoin Blockchain with X11 Proof of Work Mining and Masternode Reward Systems The Wolfcoin blockchain and network are both designed and engineered to ensure store of value, transactional speed and security, and fungibility. The main goal of the Wolfcoin blockchain is to facilitate fast and secure transactions with a governance that helps sustain the network for the benefit of all users. The Wolfcoin blockchain is a two-tier network comprised of a Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism powered by miners and a Proof of Service (PoSe) system powered by masternodes.
The Wolfcoin blockchain is secured through Proof of Work (PoW) in which miners attempt to solve difficult problems with specialized computers. When a problem is solved, the miner receives the right to add a new block to the blockchain. If the problem was solved correctly, the miner is rewarded once the block is added.
The second tier, which is powered by masternodes, enables Wolfcoin to facilitate private and instant transactions with Private Send and Instant Send. Masternodes are also rewarded when miners discover new blocks.
The block reward is distributed with 80% going to the masternodes and 20% going to miners. The masternode system is referred to as Proof of Service (PoSe), since the masternodes provide crucial services that support the features of the network.
Masternodes also oversee the network and have the power to reject improperly formed blocks from miners. If a miner tried to take the entire block reward for themselves, the masternode network would orphan the block ensuring that it would not be added to the blockchain.
In short, miners power the first tier, which is the basic sending and receiving of funds and prevention of double spending. Masternodes power the second tier, which provide the added features that make Wolfcoin different from other cryptocurrencies. Masternodes do not mine, and mining computers cannot serve as masternodes.
Additionally, each masternode is “secured” by 10,000 WOLF. Those WOLF remain under the sole control of their owner at all times. The funds are not locked in any way; however, if enough of the funds are moved or spent to cause the user’s holdings to drop below 10,000 Wolfcoin, the associated masternode will go offline and stop receiving rewards.
By pre-ordering your WolfpackBOT subscription, you will also receive Wolfcoin as a reward that can be utilized in the following ways:
  • Redeemable for WolfpackBOT subscriptions
  • Redeemable for the WolfBOX Console
  • Redeemable for WolfpackBOT and Wolfcoin apparel and merchandise
  • Fungible utility that can be exchanged for like value on exchanges
When you hold at least 10,000 Wolfcoin in your Wolfcoin wallet connected to a static IP address, you will become a masternode, meaning you will have a chance to receive 80 percent of the block reward every sixty seconds.

THE FEATURES

WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software:

After the crowdsale, Wolfcoin will be the exclusive method of payment for WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software subscriptions.

Multiple Technical Analysis Indicators:

WolfpackBOT offers the widest array of multiple Technical Analysis indicators, oscillators, configurations and settings available in the world of Automated Cryptocurrency Trading Bots. WolfpackBOT provides Bollinger Bands, Double EMA, Elliot Wave, EMA, EMA Cross, Fibonacci Sequence, KAMA, MA Cross, MACD, RSI, SMA, Stochastic, Stochastic RSI, Triple EMA, and many more!

Shorting Features:

WolfpackBOT includes Cryptocurrency Shorting Features that allow users to short their positions and buy them back at the lower price to maximize their returns.

Copyrighted Crash Protection:

Crash Protection, one of WolfpackBOT's most advanced features, enables users the option to automatically scan and convert all positions to a stable coin at the sign of our proprietary Hidden Bear Divergence Indicator, and then buy back into base currency to resume trading at the sign of our proprietary Hidden Bull Divergence Indicator.

Language Translator:

WolfpackBOT has a built in Language Translator that instantly translates the entire BOT into Dutch, English, French, German, or Spanish.

All Trading Pairs on all available Exchanges:

WolfpackBOT allows our customers to simultaneously trade on multiple cryptocurrency exchanges, and with all the exchange’s trading pairs available for trading. The best part is that it’s all possible on one bot with one subscription to the WerewolfBOT package!

Coin Selector:

While other automated trading platforms only allow for a limited amount of coins per subscription, WolfpackBOT allows all trading pairs and all coins to be traded on all the available major exchanges with the WerewolfBOT subscription. WolfpackBOT's proprietary Coin Selector allows for users to choose whether to trade all cryptocurrencies or blacklist some, thus not trading them at all, as well as search for the highest volume, greatest performing, or a specific volatility range of coins for a given timeframe.

Werewolf Configurations and Settings:

Werewolf Configurations and Settings are copyrighted trading algorithms that use proprietary optimum settings for trading: the perfect configuration for experienced and inexperienced traders alike. These settings can be adjusted to the current market trend, with preset configurations for bear, sideways, and bull markets.

Werewolf Ultimate:

Werewolf Ultimate is the ultimate choice when trading. It doesn't trade a particular trading pair or particular coins, it trades them all. It goes in for the kill to increase the potential returns. Crash Protection is a built-in feature in Werewolf Ultimate.

Werewolf Bull Market:

Werewolf Bull Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is in a Bull Run. Werewolf Bull Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Bull Run Market.

Werewolf Sideways Market:

Werewolf Sideways Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is trading sideways. Werewolf Sideways Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Sideways Trading Market.

Werewolf Bear Market:

Werewolf Bear Market are preset settings and configurations that are usable when your Base Trading Pair is in a Bear Run. Werewolf Bear Market settings are optimized for such conditions and should only be used in a Bear Run Market.

The WolfBOX Hardware Console:

WolfpackBOT also offers an industry first: a beautiful hardware console, The WolfBOX. Our console comes preloaded with WolfpackBOT Automated Trading Software and also includes a built-in secure hardware wallet. Some of the key features of the WolfBOX include our high-speed CPU, solid-state hard drive, built-in RFID card reader, and integrated Bitpay and Coinbase wallets.

Wolfpack Consulting

Our company offers its services and expertise as Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Specialists to individuals and companies. We offer consulting services in the fields of blockchain and cryptocurrency development and management.

Wolfpack Philanthropy

We are dedicated to the proposition that we have a responsibility to use a portion of our company’s revenue to help create a better world and a brighter future. As we move forward, our philanthropic efforts include environmental stewardship, renewable energy, human rights, economic development, as well as animal and wildlife rescue and conservation with an emphasis on dogs and wolves.

Wolfcoin Information

THE WOLFCOIN Wolfcoin is the coin that fuels all WolfpackBOT's projects.
This utility, coupled with the reward systems with mining and Masternoding capabilities, makes the use of Wolfcoin potentially appealing to all WolfpackBOT users whom are interested in receiving additional Wolfcoin for subscriptions, merchandise and other rewards such as passive cryptocurrency portfolio growth.
THE WOLFCOIN WALLET WolfpackBOT uses our proprietary Wolfcoin Core QT wallet.
February 2018 Conceptual development of WolfpackBOT Software
May 2018 Company Roadmap development Alpha models of WolfpackBOT Software
June 2018 Ongoing research, development, and testing
October 2018 Advertising and Marketing Campaign Starts Wallets available for payment; BTC, BTG, DASH, DOGE, ETC, ETH, LTC October 15 - Pre-registration begins
November 2018 November 1 - Crowdsale Stage I begins
December 2018 Official presentation of WolfpackBOT beta Software Preview Creation of Wolfcoin (WOLF: 300,000,000 coins pre-mined on Genesis Block) WolfpackBOT beta Software release to selected customers
December 21 - Launch network and mine Genesis block
December 22 - PoW / Mainnet
December 23 - Blockchain and network testing
December 28 - Iquidis Wolfcoin Block Explorer released on our website
January 2019 January 1 - Wolfcoin Core wallets available for download on the website January 1 - Wallet and Masternode Tutorial available January 1 - Masternode and PoW instructional videos available January 1 - Subscription Pre-order Coin Rewards disbursed Announcement listing WOLF on top-10 Exchange
February 2019 February 1 - Crowdsale Stage I Ends February 1 - Crowdsale Stage II Begins
March 2019 March 15 - Crowdsale Stage II Ends March 15 - Crowdsale Stage III Begins WolfpackBOT Software roll-out to contributors WolfBOX Console available for Pre-order
April 2019 WolfpackBOT Subscriptions available for customers First Major version released: automated, manual, and paper trading WolfpackBOT Live support center April 30 - Crowdsale Stage III Ends
May 2019 WolfBOX Consoles Pre-orders first shipment
June 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options and indicators
July 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicators
August 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V2.0 Second major release: Strategy Marketplace and Back-testing
September 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicators
October 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V3.0 Third major release: Signals Marketplace (Supporting 3rd Party App Signals) Mobile Application for WolfpackBOT Software and Trading Platform
November 2019 New trading features such as new exchanges, strategy options or indicator
December 2019 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V4.0
January 2020 WolfpackBOT Software Trading Platform V5.0 Fourth major release: Machine Learning Strategy Optimization

THE AMAZING TEAM

Philip Longhurst Chief Executive Officer The leader of our pack and the man behind the WolfpackBOT trading bot, Philip Longhurst is a mathematical genius, engineer, day trader, and animal rescuer. As an account manager for J.P. Morgan and MBNA Bank, Phil managed the accounts of several high-profile clients and businesses. He has been successfully trading stocks for over twenty-five years and has successfully applied his trading expertise and mathematical acumen to the cryptocurrency market since 2013.
Philip holds bachelor's degrees in mechanical engineering and business administration and is a loving husband, father, and family man who has been rescuing dogs since 1995. His driving desire is to use the success of Wolfpack Group to create a brighter future for humanity. He currently resides in the United States of America with his wife, daughter, and dogs.
Rogier Pointl Chief Financial Officer Rogier Pointl is a successful entrepreneur with nearly twenty-five years of experience in business management, marketing, financial administration, economics, and fintech. Rogier holds bachelor's degrees in Business Communications and Financial Administration. He is a pioneer in the field of virtual reality, having served as CEO and owner of Simworld, the first virtual reality racing center in Europe, where he oversaw the development of advanced simulator and virtual reality hardware and software.
Rogier is an experienced trader and has been trading stocks since 2007. He began applying his expertise to the cryptocurrency market in 2010, gaining experience as a Bitcoin miner along the way. Rogier is a loving husband and father and currently resides in the Netherlands with his wife and two daughters.
Jason Cormier Chief Technical Officer Jason Cormier is a humble -but extraordinary- individual who is blessed with a Mensa IQ of 151, he is continually driven by a desire for knowledge and self-growth. He is self-taught in Visual Basics, C#, C++, HTML, and CSS and began developing programs and applications at the age of 14, including the TCB Wallet, which was the first ever wallet program that held its users' log in names and passwords. Jason is a cryptocurrency guru whose expertise includes cryptocurrency mining farms, proof-of-stake, masternodes, and cryptocurrency trading.
Jason holds Associate degrees in Computer Science and Psychology, and currently resides in the United States of America with his wife and son.
Jay McKinney Chief Web Development and Design Officer Jay is a veteran of the Iraq War who put his life on the line in combat to protect our freedoms. To center himself while stationed in the Iraqi warzone, he taught himself C# as he knew honing his Web Development skills would help him provide a better future for himself and his family. Upon returning home safely, he worked his way through college and holds bachelor's degrees in Computer Programming and Web Development & Design.
Jay has worked for the Kentucky Housing Corporation, serving as a software engineer and web developer. He is a loving family man who currently resides in the United States of America with his wife and two children.
David Johnson Chief Software Development Officer David holds a Master of Science degree in Information Systems and a Bachelor's degree in Business Administration with a specialization in Information Systems, graduating with Magna Cum Laude status. He has worked for the Kentucky Housing Corporation, serving as a network analyst and software engineer. As an entrepreneur, he has owned his own web and software development company since 2009, creating and maintaining several websites in C# and PHP, and has been operating the crypto-oriented YouTube channel BigBits since 2017, where he discusses automated Cryptocurrency trading strategies.
David is a proud father of two and resides in the United States of America with his wife and children. Like any good Kentuckian, he is a huge fan of the University of Kentucky's college sports teams.
Gabriel Condrea Software and Web Development Officer Gabriel Condrea holds a bachelor's degree in electrical and computer engineering and has worked as a software developer and senior systems engineer in both the United States and the United Kingdom, working with a variety of programming languages and IDEs. He has used his expertise to create Manufacturing and SCADA systems in industrial applications.
Gabriel also applies his engineering skills to cryptocurrency day trading, seeking to automate the process. He loves to travel and currently resides in the United States with his girlfriend.
Igor Otorepec Chief Hardware Development Officer Igor is an engineer with twenty years of experience specializing in advanced PLC programming and industrial robotics. He is also an IT security expert and a CEC Certified Ethical Cracker who uses his skills to expose and patch security vulnerabilities in blockchain codes.
Igor is an advanced cryptocurrency trader and Kung Fu master who uses bio-hacking as a way of life to keep his 'chi' constantly centered. He currently resides in Austria with his loving wife.
Manik Ehhsan Director of Marketing and Public Relations Manik holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science and has over five years of experience in Web Development, Digital Marketing and Graphics Design. He has also managed the marketing for more than 30 successful Cryptocurrency start-ups and projects, and specializes in SEO and ASO. Manik is also a Cryptocurrency project promotion expert with an emphasis on Masternodes and building Social Media Communities.
Manik has focused his life on Cryptocurrency and currently resides in Bangladesh with his loving family.
Rance Garrison Chief Marketing Officer Rance Garrison holds a bachelor's degree in Business Administration and specialized in Seminary Studies for his Master's degree. He served as an AmeriCorps VISTA at WMMT-FM, the radio station owned by Appalshop, an arts and education center in Kentucky, and has also specialized in local cable television advertising. Rance is also a musician who has released several albums independently over the last decade.
Rance is very dedicated to his local community and is most excited by the potential implications of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology for rural and remote economies. He currently resides in the United States of America with his wife, dog, and cats.
Paul Gabens Chief Public Relations Officer A master negotiator with a penchant for strategy, Paul Gabens brings more than twenty years of marketing and promotional experience in the automotive, hospitality, and entertainment industries to the Wolfpack. He is also an avid stock and cryptocurrency trader, having first entered into the cryptocurrency market two years ago, embracing his passion for crypto with the same vigor as his love for travel, classic cars, extreme roller coasters, and surfing.
Paul holds degrees in business management, marketing, and automotive aftermarket. He currently resides in the United States with his fiancé and two cats.
Blake Stanley Marketing and Social Media Officer Blake Stanley is a cryptocurrency enthusiast who also has over six years of experience managing both government and private sector client and customer relations. A strategic thinker and expert in the field of social media-based advertising, Blake also owns and manages his own online marketing company where he has been successfully curating and implementing online marketing and advertising strategies for his clients for the past three years.
Blake is a proud father and family man and currently lives in the United States with his daughter and fiancé.
Martin Kilgore Market and Trading Analyst Martin Kilgore holds bachelor’s degrees in both accounting and mathematics, having researched Knot Theory and the Jones Polynomial during his undergraduate studies, giving him a firm edge when analyzing market conditions. He has worked as a staff accountant for several governmental organizations.
Martin lives in the United States with his fiancé.
Jonathan McDonald Chief Trading Strategy Officer Jonathan has honed his trading skills over the past five years by studying and implementing economics, financial strategy, Forex trading analysis and trading bots. Through his constant learning, he discovered Cryptocurrency after seeing the difference in market volatility and high yield trading. His fine-tuned trading strategies complement Crypto markets perfectly, and he has been implementing trading strategies to the Cryptocurrency market for over a year with phenomenal results. Jonathan is constantly improving his trading skills with an emphasis on scalping techniques. He has applied his trading skillset to the WolfpackBOT and enjoys working alongside the Wolfpack in creating the fastest trading bot on the market.
Jonathan currently resides in Canada with his supportive girlfriend and family.
Web site: https://www.wolfpackbot.com/
Technical document: https://www.wolfpackbot.com/Pdf/whitepaper_en.pdf
Bounty0x username: idrixoxo
submitted by idrixoxo2015 to u/idrixoxo2015 [link] [comments]

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